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printreg, January, 2001
Re: VOCs Control In Lithographic Printing


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From:Gary Jones(gjonesprinting@aol.com)
Date:Sunday, January 21, 2001 2:57 PM


In addition to Deb's response, I wanted to add a few comments. In terms of regulations for lithographic printing operations, there are no national or federal regulations that are universally applicable. At one time EPA was developing these types of regulations, but suspended work on a document called the Control Techniques Guideline for Offset Lithography. However, this document has served as a basis for many states to develop and impose regulations designed to reduce VOC emissions from lithographic printing operations. While there are some differences, especially in terms of the size of printing operations that must comply, most of the regulations contain the following requirements: Heatset Web Offset Ink VOC Emissions - Any person who owns or operates a heatset offset lithographic printing press subject to this rule shall reduce the VOC emissions from the press dryer exhaust vent by 90 percent (by weight) of total organics (less methane and ethane), or maintain a maximum control device outlet concentration of 20 ppmv (as C1) (minus methane and ethane), whichever is less stringent, when the press is in operation. Fountain Solution - Any person who owns or operates a subject heatset web offset lithographic printing press shall meet one of the following requirements for the fountain solution used on that press: (1) Maintain the as applied VOC content of the fountain solution at or below 1.6 percent, by weight; or (2) Maintain the as applied VOC content of the fountain solution at or below 3.0 percent, by weight, and refrigerate the fountain solution to 60oF or less; or (3) Maintain the as applied VOC content of the fountain solution at or below 5.0 percent, by weight, and use no alcohol in the fountain solution; Cleaning Solutions - Any person who owns or operates any type of subject offset lithographic printing press shall meet one of the following requirements for each cleaning solution used for blanket and ink roller cleaning on that press: (1) VOC content (as used) less than or equal to 30 percent, by weight; or (2) VOC composite partial vapor pressure (as used) less than or equal to 10 mm Hg at 20 C. Nonheatset Web Ink VOC Emissions - No requirements Fountain Solution - Any person who owns or operates a subject non-heatset web offset lithographic printing press or a newspaper offset lithographic printing press shall maintain the as applied VOC content of the fountain solution used on that press at or below 5.0 percent, by weight, and use no alcohol in the fountain solution. Cleaning Solutions - Any person who owns or operates any type of subject offset lithographic printing press shall meet one of the following requirements for each cleaning solution used for blanket and ink roller cleaning on that press: (1) VOC content (as used) less than or equal to 30 percent, by weight; or (2) VOC composite partial vapor pressure (as used) less than or equal to 10 mm Hg at 20 C. Sheetfed Press Ink VOC Emissions - No requirements Fountain Solution - Any person who owns or operates a subjectsheet-fed offset lithographic printing press shall meet one of the following requirements for the fountain solution used on that press: (1) Maintain the as applied VOC content of the fountain solution at or below 5.0 percent, by weight; or (2) Maintain the as applied VOC content of the fountain solution at or below 8.5 percent, by weight, and refrigerate the fountain solution to 60 F or less. Cleaning Solutions - Any person who owns or operates any type of subject offset lithographic printing press shall meet one of the following requirements for each cleaning solution used for blanket and ink roller cleaning on that press: (1) VOC content (as used) less than or equal to 30 percent, by weight; or (2) VOC composite partial vapor pressure (as used) less than or equal to 10 mm Hg at 20 C. In the US, there is a definition of what constitutes a VOC. Basically, a VOC is any compound that will participate in atmospheric chemical reactions, unless it is on a list of exempt compounds. EPA's legal definition of a VOC is as follows: (s) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) means any compound of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium carbonate, which participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions. (1) This includes any such organic compound other than the following, which have been determined to have negligible photochemical reactivity: methane; ethane; methylene chloride (dichloromethane); 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform); 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113); trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11); dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12); chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22); trifluoromethane (HFC-23); 1,2-dichloro1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114); chloropentafluoroethane (CFC-115); 1,1,1-trifluoro 2,2-dichloroethane (HCFC-123); 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a); 1,1-dichloro 1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b); 1-chloro 1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b); 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124); pentafluoroethane (HFC-125); 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134); 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a); 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a); parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF); cyclic, branched, or linear completely methylated siloxanes; acetone; perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene); 3,3-dichloro-1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane (HCFC-225ca); 1,3-dichloro-1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HCFC-225cb); 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentane (HFC 43-10mee); difluoromethane (HFC-32); ethylfluoride (HFC-161); 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236fa); 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ca); 1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ea); 1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245eb); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa); 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea); 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane (HFC-365mfc); chlorofluoromethane (HCFC-31); 1 chloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-151a); 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123a); 1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-nonafluoro-4-methoxy-butane; 2-(difluoromethoxymethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane; 1-ethoxy-1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,4-nonafluorobutane; 2-(ethoxydifluoromethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane; methyl acetate and perfluorocarbon compounds which fall into these classes: (i) Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated alkanes; (ii) Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated ethers with no unsaturations; (iii) Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated tertiary amines with no unsaturations; and (iv) Sulfur containing perfluorocarbons with no unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only to carbon and fluorine. Gary Jones



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