Printech Archive
Best Management Practices and Life Cylce Analysis


New Message Reply About this list Date view Thread view Subject view Author view

From: gjonesprinting@aol.com
Date: Fri Jan 08 1999 - 15:13:42 CST


Your question regarding BMPs is rather broad in that printers in the US have
to observe a myriad of regulations at the Federal, state, and local government
level. Since there are not uniform regulations, printers in some parts of the
US have much more stringent requirements to meet. Also, what printing process
are you interested in - lithography, flexography, rotogravure, screen
printing, or letterpress? This is important because the regulations,
especially those for air pollution control, differ dramatically. For example,
all printers in New York City must obtain an air pollution control permit and
lithographers use less than 7% isopropyl alcohol in their fountain solution.
Flexographic and rotogravure printers must use inks with less than 25% VOC
content, more than 60% solids, or use a capture/control system capable of
achieving an overall destruction efficiency of 75% for publication gravure
presses, 65% for packaging gravure presses, and 60% for flexographic presses.

This does not mean that printers do not develop and incorporate BMPs. Many
printers recycle solid wastes such as corrugated, waste printing, trim, paper
wraps and cores, aluminum plates. Some printers use low VOC or low Vapor
Pressure cleaning solvents. Some printers recover liquid from solvent-laden
shop towels for reuse and some are now experimenting with CO2 cleaning
systems. What specific items are you interested in?

Regarding life cycle analysis, there are only two studies that I am aware of
that have been conducted on the entire printing industry. They were released
in 1995 and the first is entitled Life-Cycle Analysis For Printed Products by
Rolf Dalhielm and Ulrik Axelsson from IMT in Stockholm, Sweden. The second is
entitled Modeling The Eco-Balance of Printed Communications by Seppo Juntunen
and Ulf Lindqvist of VTT Information Technology in Helsinki, Finland. Both
papers were given at the 23rd Research Conference of the International
Association of Research Institutes for the Graphic Arts Industry, Paris,
France, September 17-20, 1995.
 
The purpose of the Life-Cycle Analysis For Printed Products study was to
develop scientific criteria to examine the environmental impact of printed
products, identify major factors contributing to environmental impact, and
make suggestions to reduce those impacts. The study was conducted from 1993 to
1995 and used three different printers - envelope manufacturer using
flexography, advertising brochures printed via heatset web offset lithography,
and local telephone directories printed with both heatset web offset
lithography for the cover and nonheatset web offset lithography for the
remainder. The study quantitated environmental impacts from prepress,
printing, and paper and examined four different evaluation methods.

The product evaluated from the envelope manufacturer was a C5 envelope with a
polystyrene window. The results indicated that 70% of environmental impact was
from paper and 30% is from the printing operation. In considering the same
envelope with transportation included in the analysis, the impact shifts to
68% from the paper, 26% from the printing operation, and 6% from
transportation.

The product evaluated from the advertising brochure was two folded A4 sheets
with ink jetted addresses. The results indicated 92% of environmental impact
was from the paper and 8% was from the printing operation. In considering the
same brochure with transportation included in the analysis, the impact shifts
to 89% from paper, 8% from printing, and 3% from transportation.

The telephone directory was a for a small local area and it consisted of 1000
copies with 30,75 names. The results indicated 72% of environmental impact was
from the paper and 28% was from the printing operation. In considering the
same brochure with transportation included in the analysis, the impact shifts
to 68% from paper, 17% from printing, and 15% from transportation.
     
The study Modeling The Eco-Balance of Printed Communications, was conducted
from 1993 To 1995. It was designed to evaluate the entire impact of the
printing industry in Finland. The products produced included newspapers,
magazines, books, forms/labels, advertising products, and packaging and others
such as calendars and security printed products. A statistically
representative sample of printers in Finland was used.

The study contains several detailed data tables on input material and the type
and amount of waste produced per industry sub-segment. It concluded that on
average 1.1-1.5 tons of raw material is needed to produce 1 ton of printed
product. On average, the volatile and solid emissions to air were
approximately 16 kg/ton of product produced, chemical effluents to the drain
are 0.1-2.2 kg/ton of product produced and solvent effluents are 0.2-4.4
kg/ton of product produced, and 0.03 tons of waste/ton of product produced is
transported for disposal. Energy consumption is high and ranged from 0.85-1.8
MWh/ton of product produced and averaged 1.34 MWh/ton of product produced. Of
this 0.69 MWh/ton of product produced is electricity, 0.55 MWh/ton of product
produced is remote heat, and 0.70 MWh/ton of product produced is oil. It was
difficult to give a clear picture of the energy consumption of the process.
Water consumption is also high at 280 liters/day/worker compared to household
consumption of 140-200 liters/person/day. On a ton/product produced scale,
water consumption is 2 cubic meters/ton of product produced.

VOC emissions are less than 5,000 tons, which represents about 2% of the total
emissions in Finland and about 12% of the total solvent emissions. CO2
emissions are less than 10,000 tons. No comparison data was provided.

If you would like copies of these papers, please provide you address and I
will send copies.

Gary Jones
GATF


New Message Reply About this list Date view Thread view Subject view Author view
 
PNEAC
Disclaimer / Copyright Info
Email the PNEAC Webmaster